Although the concept of personal honor as an individual character and communal virtue seems to pre-exist according to the Homeric epics, the earliest reports of Philotimo's central concept of the benevolent citizen are formed from the 6th and 5th century BC through the works of pre-Socratic and classical philosophical. Beyond Philotimo's global legacy in shaping Greek culture, a particular epistemological interest and plasticity of concept in presenting complex and contradictory features as they historically manifest themselves in Greek history and culture from antiquity to the 20th century. Aristotle's abstract definition of virtue "as a means between the extremes of lack and excess" reflects the fluid nature of virtues, including Philotimo, and sees it as imperative for every society to redefine its place along the axis of contemporary extremes.


Since the turn of the century, in what was a major shift in value orientation, the humanities seemed to be moving away from service to humanity by relieving it of pain and disease, towards employing systematic research and specialized interventions to support the pursuit of well-being, excellence and prosperity. Particularly relevant to the discipline of psychology and its applications in all organizational contexts, the body of research has refocused on the creation and positive development of experiences and relationships, from the individual and the collective to the civic and institutional . The unique case of philotimo and its significance, as attributed by Greeks and Greek language learners around the world, is of particular scholarly value because it is defined by complex and often oxymoronic traits such as gentleness, compromise , altruism or even naivety on the one hand, and stubbornness. , pride, irritability, even nepotism of the other. A central linguistic asset of the word is its ability to negotiate a combination of personal virtues such as honor, integrity and pride - with more social values ​​such as friendship, honesty in every transaction and a sense of humanism. In addition to their academic value, the above observations express innate behavioral, cognitive, and emotional tendencies that are distinguished by their unique ability to enable and empower the individual toward optimal functionality and development. Philotimo's affinity with concepts such as kindness, fairness, honesty, gratitude, courage, and others provides a unique opportunity to explore an understudied phenomenon to better understand what constitutes and nurtures moral character within a civic society.



Consider Philotimo as a cornerstone of civic life in democratic societies and the quintessence of universal values, and issues, at the heart of modern citizenship. Whether we are talking about democracy, Olympism, humanism, art and creation, culture and intellect, science, medicine, communication and universality, it is essentially about fruits of the struggle for individual and collective excellence which is at the heart of universal humanism.

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